Pacific Congress onMarine Science & Technology (PACON)
22nd International Conference

International Partnerships in Marine Science and Technology: A Vehicle for Improving Pacific Rim Relations and Resource Management

June 1 - 5 June  2010
University of Hawai`i at Hilo,  
 Hilo, Hawai`i  USA

 Three Oral presentation  & Two Poster at PACON 2010 by Arnd-Bernaerts
Here:  18.May 2010

 The Arctic European winters 1939/40 to 1941/42
caused by naval war? How to substantiate?

Saturday, 5th June, Session 8B, 03:00pm to 05:20pm, Chair: Lorenz Magaard

By analyzing the structure of the temperature records in the sphere of the North and Baltic Sea it can be shown that the sudden climatic shift 70 years ago is intertwined with the naval activities of WWII. It caused the coldest winters for more than 100 years. The examination of air temperature data series  (Nasa/Giss) reveal that the locations most effected by extreme low temperatures  were close to those sea areas with the highest naval activities, in 1939/40, The Netherlands, Denmark, and the Baltic Sea. After the invasion of Norway the Skagerrak region experienced a record cold winter 1940/41, and the severe winter conditions in 1941/42 can be attributed the Eastern Baltic Sea where naval force had been active since the German ambush on Russia in June 1941. Such three cold winter in succession have never been observed. Any confirmation or exclusion of the naval war thesis, would enhance ocean science on climatic matters, and the understanding of the reasons of the global cooling period from 1940 to the 1970s, which is still pending.  View the Poster in PDF (ca. 1,9 MB) – Click HERE 
The Power Point Presentation in PDF ( ca. 3 MB) : Here

 The Pacific War and a climatic shift,
1942-1945: Correlation or Causation?

Full conference paper in PDF, pages 16

Saturday, 5th June, Session 8B, 03:00pm to 05:20pm, Chair: Lorenz Magaard

Although it is an established fact that during WWII a global cooling commenced that lasted for three decades, rarely any question have been asked, whether the significant correlation to naval activities in the Western North Pacific left a fingerprint in the temperature data at that time. As the US Navy and her Allies assembled  a huge strike force since 1943 until the surrender of Japan in August 1945, their enormous range of activities at and under the sea surface could have changed the structure of sea layers at some depths considerably, either warming, or cooling the sea surface layer. The paper will discuss the circumstances during the relevant years, and  analyze data sets, with the aim to demonstrate that the impact of WWII activities in the Pacific rectify to investigate the strong correlation thoroughly, as even a small contribution of naval war activities to the global cooling since 1945 should be known, understood, and a subject in the climate change debate.  View the Poster in PDF (below) – Click HERE 
The Power Point Presentation in PDF ( ca. 3 MB) : Here

Is the term ‚climate’ too unspecific for a fruitful discussion?

Saturday, 5th June, Session 7B, 03:00pm to 05:20pm, Chair: Richard Hildreth

While the debate on the climatic change issue has reached unprecedented global prominence over the recent years, the content is often a fierce clash of opinions rather than a fruitful discussion. One reason could be the use of insufficiently defined terms in climatology. The key term ‘climate’ is used by lay persons, politics, and science alike, while the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (1992) does not define the term at all. Instead the Convention defines ‘climate change’ and ‘climate system’, which does not necessarily mean that it makes the terminology more definite. This requires to look at the ordinary meaning as used since Ancient Greek and how science explains the terms nowadays, and whether it is done in a manner that avoids confusion, or misleading interpretation. As science is supposed to define and use terms and definitions with care, the current situation may require that the major terms used in climatology are revised.    View for PDF   or    Powerpoint

More material at:    

POSTER I: There is no causation without correlation!
Global Cooling and Naval War?

Poster on Display, 2nd June to 5th June 2010

View the Poster in PDF (ca. 1,9 MB) – Click HERE 

 A better understanding of the perfect time correlation between naval activities during the Second World War and the start of a three decade long global cooling since 1940 could prove the role that anthropogenic activities may have had on the marine environment and climatic change matters.  Although the global temperatures had been at the highest in the 1930s since the mid 19th Century, Northern Europe was suddenly back in the Little Ice Age after only four months in WWII. The study provides an overview of links between naval activities and a change of air temperatures, first during the extreme cold winters in Europe 1939/40, 1940/41 and  1941/42, followed by a three decade long global cooling.  A significant fact of the three war winters in Europe is their appearance in succession, which is rare.  As soon as the naval went global after December 1941, a simultaneous decrease of sea and air temperature throughout the Northern Hemisphere became evident. The number of links between human activities during WWII and temperature changes should not be ignored. 

POSTER II: Pacific Cooling from 1943-1970; Influenced by Naval War?

Poster on Display, 2nd June to 5th June 2010

View the Poster in PDF (ca. 1,3 MB) – Click HERE 

 Was the Naval War in the Pacific from 1943-1945 not only devastating to man and material, but did it also altered substantially the structure of the sea surface layer with a subsequent impact on the air temperatures? Until now the question has received little attention although it is evident that a rising trend prior the early 1940s turned into a decreasing mode for three decades until the mid 1970s by about 1943. While the impact of screw driven vessels since their invention in the 19th Century on the sea surface structure is difficult to asses, the naval war in the Pacific from 1943-1945 could be regarded as a large-scale ‘field experiment’ due to the suddenness, the hugeness and the intensity it penetrated the ocean to considerable depths. Naval operations and available sea and climate data need to be identified, linked, evaluated and discussed. What impact had the Pacific War on climate? It seems time to pay attention to the matter.